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Education & Physics

Advanced Microwave Topics for Quantum Physicists

Mark Elo, US National Sales Manager
In this article we will start with the fundamentals of wave propagation, understanding the difference in wave velocities through a vacuum vs cables of different types and lengths. Then we will examine impendence and why it is important – gaining an understanding of impendence matching and transmission lines to ensure maximum power transfer between two devices
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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy

Mark Elo, US National Sales Manager
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy is a technique used for determining the structure of organic compounds. Some nuclei possess a magnetic moment. In a strong magnetic field, the magnetic moment of each nucleus will align with the magnetic field of the magnet. If you apply resonant RF energy it will cause the nuclei to jump to a higher-energy state and the nuclei magnetic moments will rotate or process. When the energy is removed the same frequency is emitted. This is what we measure.
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10 Tips for using an Arbitrary Waveform Generator

10 Tips for using an Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG) in Quantum Experiment control and measurement applications.
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A New Paradigm for the Classical to Quantum Computing Interface

Joan Mercade, Field Application Engineer
New trends in RF/µW signal generation and acquisition and real-time closed-loop control for classical to quantum computing interfacing. The Classical/Quantum Interface can be implemented by the Proteus AWT (Arbitrary Waveform Transceiver). This article will show how the Proteus AWT can be used to control multiple Qubits in an operational Quantum Computing system.
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Direct to Microwave Signal Generation and Acquisition

Joan Mercade, Field Application Engineer
Complex and accurate modulation of RF signals implies the quadrature modulation of some carrier with complex (I/Q) baseband signals. AWGs have been always used to generate these baseband signals to be applied to external quadrature modulators. A new generation of high-speed AWGs can avoid external modulators by using a combination of digital processing techniques with a high-enough sampling rate to directly generate modulated RF signals in the microwave region.
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High-Precision Waveform Generation and Acquisition

Joan Mercade, Field Application Engineer
Real-World high-speed arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers can't implement a perfect flat frequency response with a linear phase (fixed delay) behavior over the full bandwidth. It is virtually impossible to reproduce exactly the same response for all the instruments and even for all the different channels in the same device. Some applications can cope with such limitations. Others, such as qubit control or wireless test, can't. The solutions are calibration and corrections.
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Real-Time Control Of Operating Quantum Computing Systems

Joan Mercade, Field Application Engineer
The AWT concept implemented by the Proteus platform is not just a convenient combination of an AWG and a digitizer in a single device, it is a full-fledged closed-loop processing and control solution. Each basic Proteus cell incorporates a powerful FPGA from Xilinx, the UltraScale KU-060 model, tightly connected to all the analog and digital input/output blocks. The current implementation allows for the future incorporation of even more powerful and faster FPGAs.
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Direct Generation/Acquisition of Microwave Signals_Full Article

Joan Mercade, Field Application Engineer
AWGs and Digitizers can be powerful RF signal generation and acquisition tools. This paper shows how high-performance AWTs (Arbitrary Waveform Transceivers) can be used as simple but powerful RF T&M gear. The Tabor Proteus AWT, with generation and acquisition capabilities beyond 8GHz, can be applied to test systems for the microwave region using techniques as full digital up-conversion/IQ modulation and down-conversion/IQ demodulation, multi-Nyquist zone operation and high RF performance.
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Quantum Communication

Entangled qubits can also be used for secure communications. When two qubits are entangled, the measurement of the first qubit creates the opposite condition in the other, regardless of their positions in time and space - the qubits continue to affect each other no matter the distance in miles or even in time
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Quantum bits – Solution Note

In quantum computing, a qubit or quantum bit is a unit of quantum information. A qubit is a two-state quantum-mechanical system and is the quantum analogue of the classical bit. In a classical system, a bit would have to be in one state or the other. However, quantum mechanics allows the qubit to be in a superposition of both states at the same time.
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Pion Decay – Solution Note

Particle physics research institutes are trying to simulate and research the behavior of sub-atomic particles. Because Pions consists of a particle and an antiparticle, they are very unstable.
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Cold Atoms - Solution Note

Cold atoms are atoms that have been super-cooled to a less than one millionth of a degree above absolute zero (zero degrees Kelvin – the temperature at which atoms cease all movement). Under such supercooled conditions, the result is a new form of matter that is governed by quantum mechanics.
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Optical Displacement Meters – Solution Note

Microelectromechanical systems (otherwise known as MEMS) have evolved from their roots in lab research to everyday use, as their adoption in commercial and industrial applications grows. As MEMS technology advances, more advanced testing methods are needed in order to characterize the dynamics – such as vibration and displacement – of miniaturized mechanical and electro-mechanical devices.
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